Quote from Study: Management of diabetes includes: control of blood glucose level and lipids; and reduction of hypertension. Dietary intake of ß-glucans has been shown to reduce all these risk factors to benefit the treatment of diabetes and associated complications.

Study:  ß-glucans in the treatment of diabetes and associated cardiovascular risks
Authors:  Jiezhong Chen, Kenneth Raymond
Publication:  Vasc Health Risk Manag.  2008:4(6) 1265–1272
Summary:  A review was undertaken to discover the effects of beta glucans and the treatement of diabetes and associated cardiovascular risks.  ß-glucans were found to have beneficial effects on the parameters of diabetes control and management including glucose and lipid control as well as reduction in hypertension. ß-glucans were also found to positively affect wound healing and ischemic heart injury.
Link:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2663451/pdf/VHRM-4-1265.pdf

Quote from Study: “In this uncontrolled pilot study, hospital admission and diabetes adapted diet followed by oatmeal intervention achieved a approximately 40% reduction of insulin dosage required to achieve controlled glucose levels.”

Study: Clinical benefit of a short term dietary oatmeal intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe insulin resistance: a pilot study.
Authors:  Lammert A, Kratzsch J, Selhorst J, Humpert PM, Bierhaus A, Birck R, Kusterer K, Hammes HP.
Publication:  Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2008 Feb;116(2):132-4
Summary:  14 patients with diabetes and insulin resistance were given an oatmeal diet for 2 days. The intervention was associated with a 42.5% decrease in insulin dosage, significant reduction in leptin levels and a 53.8% increase in adiponectin.
Link:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18095234

Quote from Study:  Moderate amounts of oat extracts can be incorporated into normal diets with beneficial effects on glucose tolerance factors.

Study:  Diets containing soluble oat extracts improve glucose and insulin responses of moderately hypercholesterolemic men and women
Authors:  Judith Hallfrisch, Daniel J. Scholfield, and Kay M. Behall
Publication:  Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:379-84.
Summary:  16 women and 7 men in a 5 week crossover study received either 1% or 10% soluble ß-glucan fiber was added.  Glucose and insulin were lower after oat extracts. The glucose response of the women was lowest after the 10% ß-glucan.
Link:  http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/reprint/61/2/379

Quote from Study:  The amount of extractable ß-glucan had a high correlation between the glycemic and insulinemic response.

Study:  The effect of ß-glucan on the glycemic and insulin index.
Authors:  Mäkeläinen H, Anttila H, Sihvonen J, Hietanen RM, Tahvonen R, Salminen E, Mikola M, Sontag-Strohm T.
Publication:  Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;61(6):779-85.
Summary:  10 Subjects were given glucose tolerance and glycemic response test with 4 different oat bran products. With increasing amounts of ß-glucan, peak glucose values where lower compared to the reference glucose load.
Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17151593

Quote from Study:  Consumption of 10 g of ß-glucan significantly reduced peak glucose response at 30 min and delayed the rate of glucose response.

Study:  Glucose and insulin responses to whole grain breakfasts varying in soluble fiber, ß-glucan: a dose response study in obese women with increased risk for insulin resistance.
Authors:  Kim H, Stote KS, Behall KM, Spears K, Vinyard B, Conway JM.
Publication:  Eur J Nutr. 2009 Apr;48(3):170-5.
Summary:  17 women received 5 test meals with varying amounts of ß-glucans over 2 days. Glycemic and insulin responses were significantly affected by 10g ß-glucan.
Link:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19205780

Quote from Study:  Plasma insulin concentrations were, however, 26% lower with ß-glucan during the last 2 h of the 9 h meal ingestion.

Study:  Mechanisms of action of beta-glucan in postprandial glucose metabolism in healthy men.
Authors:  Battilana P, Ornstein K, Minehira K, Schwarz JM, Acheson K, Schneiter P, Burri J, Jéquier E, Tappy L.
Publication:  Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 May;55(5):327-33.
Summary:  10 Men received either an diet with with our without 8.9g of ß-glucans, administered in frequent small meals, over 3 days. In the beta glucan group insulin was 26% lower, glucose rate rate of appearance at steady state was 12% lower and there was a 21% reduction in the systemic appearance rate of exogenous carbohydrate. These results suggest the affects of ß-glucans on glucose and insulin levels is from delayed and somewhat reduced carbohydrate absorption.
Link:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11378805

Quote from Study:  Oat bran flour high in ß-glucan had a low glycemic response and acted as an active ingredient decreasing postprandial glycemic response of an oral glucose load in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

Study:  Glycemic responses of oat bran products in type 2 diabetic patients.
Authors:  Tapola N, Karvonen H, Niskanen L, Mikola M, Sarkkinen E.
Publication:  Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Aug;15(4):255-61.
Summary:  Twelve type 2 diabetic patients were given 5 separate glucose tolerance tests after: oat bran flour, oat bran crisp and glucose load providing 12.5g glycemic carbohydrate, 25g glucose load alone, and 25g glucose load with 30g oat bran flour. Compared to the glucose load, oat bran flour had a lower area under the glucose response curve from 0-120 minutes.
Link:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16054549

Quote from Study: The well-accepted oat bran concentrate bread products improved glycemic, insulinemic, and lipidemic responses.

Study:  Oat bran concentrate bread products improve long-term control of diabetes: a pilot study.
Authors:  Pick ME, Hawrysh ZJ, Gee MI, Toth E, Garg ML, Hardin RT.
Publication:  J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Dec;96(12):1254-61.
Summary:  8 Diabetic men participated in a 24 week crossover study, receiving either white bread or bread made with oat bran concentrated for ß-glucans. Oat bran group had lower glycemic and insulin response compared to white bread group. Cholesterol levels were also lower and LDL:HDL ratio dropped by 24%.
Link:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8948386

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